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The Door To Hell Darvaza (Derweze)

Derweze (Turkmen language: The Gate, also known as Darvaza) is a Turkmenistan village of about 350 inhabitants, located in the middle of the Kara-Kum desert, about 260 km north from Ashgabat.

Darvaza inhabitants are mostly Turkmen of the Teke tribe, preserving a half-nomadic lifestyle.

The Derweze area is rich in natural gas.

This phenomenon started during the Soviet times, 35 years ago. While drilling in 1971 geologists accidentally found an underground cavern filled with natural gas. Geologists and miners were drilling inside a mine.  At a point, the gas buildup impeded any further activity. Employing the normal mindset of the times, the team planned to fire the gas and return when it was totally burned. A huge gas explosion formed the 30 m (100 ft) wide crater. The huge hole engulfed the entire drilling site with the equipment and camps. Locals have named the cavern The Door to Hell.

The fact is that the site has been incessantly burning ever since, and the deposit seems to contain yet a lot of gas to burn. The inhabitants of the area had to be removed meanwhile.As Darvaza no longer has an airstrip, the crater's site is too far from the capital to send a foam plane to put the blaze out.

However, official government guides will tell you that the crater was caused by a meteor strike.














                                                                                                       Source : SoftpediaWikipedia
  The door to hell - Darvaza
Turkmenistan mapThe Door To Hell - DarvazThe Door To Hell - DarvazThe Door To Hell - Darvaz
The Door To Hell - DarvazThe Door To Hell - DarvazThe Door To Hell - DarvazThe Door To Hell - Darvaz
The Door To Hell - DarvazThe Door To Hell - DarvazThe Door To Hell - DarvazThe Door To Hell - Darvaz
The Door To Hell - DarvazaThe Door To Hell - Darvaza

  
The Plain of Jars Loas mapThe Plain of JarsThe Plain of JarsThe Plain of Jars
The Plain of JarsThe Plain of JarsThe Plain of JarsThe Plain of Jars
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The Plain of Jars - Laos

The Plain of Jars is a large group of historic cultural sites in Laos containing thousands of stone jars, which lie scattered throughout the Xieng Khouang plain in the Lao Highlands at the northern end of the Annamese Cordillera, the principal mountain range of Indochina. In the context of the Vietnam War and the Secret War, the Plain of Jars typically refers to the entire Xieng Khouang plain rather than the cultural sites themselves.

At the moment, the ethno-linguistic nature of the people is not known. Archaeologists believe that the jars were used 1,500–2,000 years ago. Most of the excavated material has been dated to around 500 BC–800 AD. Anthropologists and archeologists have theorized that the jars may have been used as funeral urns or perhaps storage for food.

Lao stories and legends claim that there was a race of giants who once inhabited the area. Local legend tells of an ancient king called Khun Cheung, who fought a long, victorious battle against his enemy. He supposedly created the jars to brew and store huge amounts of lao lao rice wine to celebrate his victory.

The first Westerner to survey, study and catalogue the Plain of Jars was a French archaeologist, Madeleine Colani of the École française d'Extrême Orient in the 1930s. She excavated the area of jars with her team and found a nearby cave with human remains, including burned bones and ash. Her work is still the most comprehensive although there have been other excavations.

An American bomb damaged the cave during the Vietnam War, when the Pathet Lao used it as a stronghold — the surrounding area still has trench systems and bomb craters. The land is littered with metal shrapnel. The town of Xieng Khouang was destroyed during the fighting between the Pathet Lao and American backed anti-communist troops. A new town was built in the mid 1970s, known to foreigners as Phonsavan.

There are total of more than 400 sites across the whole Plain of Jars that centers on the area of Xieng Khouang. They range from Khorat Plateau in Thailand in the south, through Laos and to North Cachar Hills in northern India. Archaeologists have found more similar burials in India. The jars appear to be laid in a linear path that was probably a trade route.

The jars are made of sedimentary rock, usually sandstone, but also granite, conglomerate or calcified coral. They are angular or round and some have disks that could be lids. They can weigh up to 13 tonnes (14 short tons) and range from one to three metres (3 to 10 feet) in height.

The jars lie in clusters. The largest one near the town of Phonsavan, known as Site 1, contains over 250 jars of varying sizes. The jars now lie amidst thousands of unexploded bombs left behind by the Secret War in Laos in the 1960s. The large quantity of UXOs (unexploded ordnances), in particular cluster munitions, in the area means that only Sites 1, 2 and 3 are open to visitors—the others are considered too dangerous.

The bones, beads, bronze and iron tools and other artifacts that Colani discovered led her to believe that the jars were funerary urns. They have all since been dispersed, many to France. Her archaeological accounts have been published in the form of two large volumes, The Megaliths of Upper Laos. They still remain the primary source of the area.

Although the jars are the best-known and most visible aspect of the plains, researchers there have also discovered and photographed stone carvings. These include very tall, thin slabs of stone. The method used to create the thin slabs of stone without fracturing them is unknown.














Madeleine Colani speculated that the plains of jars connected a caravan route from northern India, for which there is much evidence.

Colani also found a natural double chimneyed cave at the site of the largest jar field, with evidence of smoke accumulation by the chimneys, similar to a primitive kiln. She believed that it was a crematorium and speculated that the jars were used to deposit cremated human remains. Later excavations have found more human remains and also unburned bones.

Because the found bodies have been dated to various periods, it is possible that the place had been used as a burial ground also in later periods, using the contemporary customs.

This theory is the most popular, although there are various other theories.

Some refer to local tradition that states that the jars were molded, by using natural materials such as clay, sand, sugar, and animal products in a type of stone mix. This leads some to believe the cave Colani found was actually a kiln, and that the huge jars were molded there and are not of imported stone. Considering that many jars are made of substances like granite, archaeologists do not accept this idea.

Another explanation for the jars' use is for collecting monsoon rainwater for the caravan travellers along their journey in a time where rain may have been only seasonal and water not readily available on the easiest foot traveled path. Rainwater could then be boiled, even if stagnant, to become potable again, a practice long understood in Eastern Eurasia. The trade caravans that were camping around these jars and could have placed beads inside jars as an offering, to accompany prayers for rain or they might simply have been lost items.













The Plain of Jars remains one of the most dangerous archaeological sites in the world . Unexploded bombs, in particular cluster munitions, the results of massive US bombardment during the Secret War, still cause injuries every week. Visitors can safely visit only three sites, designated Jar Sites 1, 2 and 3, and they should follow signs still warning of unexploded bombs.Many ignore them.

Archaeologically speaking the area is mixed with original artifacts, artifacts of the intervening eras - Buddhist statues, colonial items - and large amounts of scrap metal from the bombs.

The Laotian caretakers of the Plain of Jars are currently applying for status as a UNESCO World Heritage site. UNESCO-Lao Plain of Jars Project surveys the area. Clearing of the UXO hazard will be necessary before many of the sites can be studied and turned into tourist attractions.

The Mines Advisory Group, a non-governmental organization, work with the national organization, UXO Lao, to remove explosives since July 2004. As of July 2005, they have cleared most of the three aforementioned sites. They destroy the week's cache of removed explosives every Friday. Their funding is at an end.

More recently, those from the Ministry of Information and Culture and from Australian universities, among others, have taken part in studies of the jars. One of them is a Belgian archaeologist, Julie Van Den Bergh, who as of September 2005 had worked there regularly for four years.














More info on the plain of jars : Theplainofjars

                                           legaciesofwar


                                                                                                       Source : SoftpediaWikipedia
The Plain of JarsThe Plain of JarsThe Plain of Jars
The Plain of JarsThe Plain of JarsThe Plain of Jars
The Plain of JarsThe Plain of JarsThe Plain of Jars

  
Hashima Island - Battleship IslandHashima Island - Battleship IslandHashima Island - Battleship IslandHashima Island - Battleship Island
Hashima Island - Battleship IslandHashima Island - Battleship IslandHashima Island - Battleship Island EntranceHashima Island - Battleship Island
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Hashima Island  aka Battleship Island

Hashima Island (or simply "Hashima," as the suffix -shima already means "island" in Japanese), commonly called Gunkanjima (meaning "Battleship Island") is one among 505 uninhabited islands in the Nagasaki Prefecture about 15 kilometers from Nagasaki itself. The island was populated from 1887 to 1974 as a coal mining facility. The island's most notable features are the abandoned concrete buildings and the sea wall surrounding it. It has been administered as part of Nagasaki, Nagasaki since 2005; it had previously been administered by the former town of Takashima.

The deserted island of Gunkanjima, as it is most often called, was a coal mining colony based on an island roughly the size of a football field.

"Battleship Island" is an English translation of the Japanese nickname for Hashima Island, Gunkanjima (gunkan meaning "battleship", jima being the rendaku form of shima, meaning "island"). The island's nickname came from its apparent resemblance to the Japanese battleship Tosa due to its high seawalls. It also is known as the Ghost Island. It is known for its coal mines and their operation during the industrialization of Japan. In 1887, a shaft mine was established on the island and the first inhabitants took residence there in order to work at the mine. In 1890, the island was purchased by Mitsubishi Company for ¥100,000, and a new 199 meter shaft, sinking deep into the ocean floor, was established. Another, equally long shaft was built soon after. Slag from the mine was used to develop flat areas on which to build living quarters and industrial facilities as well as a high sea wall to surround the island. It is this sea wall that creates the illusion of a large ship.
The aim was retrieving coal from the bottom of the sea. They built Japan's first large concrete building, a block of apartments in 1916 to accommodate their burgeoning ranks of workers (many of whom were forcibly recruited labourers from other parts of Asia), and to protect against typhoon destruction.

Production soared and in 1916, Mitsubishi built the first concrete reinforced apartment building in Japan to house the 3000 residents living on the island at the time. It was followed two years later by a 9 storey apartment building that, at the time, was the tallest in Japan. Construction continued until there were more than 30 buildings on the tiny island that is only 480 meters long and 160 meters wide.

The history of Battleship Island during the years preceding and during the Second World War are dark ones. With most of the Japanese youth overseas fighting various wars, the government had no way to keep up coal production other than forced labor. Many young Koreans and Chinese were brought to the island and forced to work under horrible conditions. An estimated 1300 men lost their lives on the island because of malnutrition and unsafe working conditions. A handful died when they jumped off the high walls in an attempt to swim to shore.

In 1959, its population density was 835 people per hectare (83,500 people/km2) for the whole island, or 1,391 per hectare (139,100 people/km2) for the residential district, the highest population density ever recorded worldwide. As petroleum replaced coal in Japan in the 1960s, coal mines began shutting down all over the country, and Hashima's mines were no exception.This was the most densely populated place on earth before Mitsubishi officially announced the closing of the mine in 1974, and today it is empty and bare, which is why it's called the Ghost Island. Travel to Hashima was re-opened on April 22, 2009 after more than 20 years of closure.













On August 23, 2005, landing was permitted to journalists only. The scene of the ruined locations on the island was broadcast in the media. Originally, Nagasaki City planned restoration of a pier, which was actually used in the past, for the prospective tourist landing in April 2008. In addition, a 220-meter-long visitor walkway was planned (Entrance to unsafe building areas is to be prohibited).

Due to the delay in development construction, however, in the end of 2007, the city announced that public access was delayed for approximately one year up until spring 2009. However, the city faced safety concerns, regarding the risk of collapse of the building on the island due to significant aging.

Because of the harsh weather, it was estimated that landing would only be feasible for less than 160 days per year. From a cost-effectiveness point of view, the city is considering relinquishment of plan for extending visitor walkway further for approximately 300 meters toward the east part of the island and approximately 190 meters toward the west part of the island after year 2009.

When people resided on the island the Nomo Shosen line offered service to the island from Nagasaki Port via Ioujima Island and Takashima Island. In 1970, 12 round trip services were available per day. It took 50 minutes to travel from the island to Nagasaki. After all residents left the island, the direct route was discontinued.

Currently, sightseeing boat trips around the island are provided by two operators; Yamasa-Kaiun from Nagasaki Port, Kyodo Co. from Nomo Island. As of April 22, 2009, the island is open once again for public visits, with Yamasa Kaiun providing transportation to the island from Nagasaki
















Pictures of Hashima Island - Battleship Island before it was abandoned : ne.jp/asahi/saiga/yuji

                                     Picture of Hashima Island - Battleship Island :  Google Earth Hacks


                                                                                                      


                                                                                                              Source : Wikipedia
Hashima Island - Battleship IslandHashima Island - Battleship IslandHashima Island - Battleship Island
Hashima Island - Battleship IslandHashima Island - Battleship Island
Hashima Island - Battleship Island

  
PripyatPripyatChernobyl Nuclear Power PlantPripyat
PripyatPripyatPripyatPripyat
PripyatPripyat cafe`(Coffee house)PripyatPripyat
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Prypiat - Ukraine

Prypiat (Ukrainian: При́п'ять, Pryp”jat’; Russian: При́пять, Pripjat’), or Pripyat, is an abandoned city in the zone of alienation in northern Ukraine, Kiev Oblast, near the border with Belarus. The city was founded in 1970 to house the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant workers, and was abandoned in 1986 following the Chernobyl disaster. Its population had been around 50,000 prior to the accident.


Unlike cities of military importance, access to Prypiat was not restricted prior to the disaster. Before the Chernobyl accident, nuclear power stations were seen by the Soviet Union as safer than other types of power plants. Nuclear power stations were presented as being an achievement of Soviet engineering, where nuclear power was harnessed for peaceful projects. The slogan "peaceful atom" (Russian: мирный атом, mirny atom) was popular during those times. Initially the plant was intended to be built only 25 km from Kiev, but the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, among other bodies, expressed concern about the station being too close to the city, and so the station, together with Prypiat, were built in their current location — about 100 km from Kiev. After the disaster, the city of Prypiat was evacuated in two days.

The 1200 buses brought in resulted in a convoy 15 miles long. The people of Pripyat were told the evacuation was to be temporary and to take only enough clothes, food, and money for three days.
















Only after radiation levels set off alarms at the Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant in Sweden did the Soviet Union admit that an accident had occurred, but authorities attempted to conceal the scale of the disaster. To evacuate the city of Pripyat, the following warning message was reported on local radio: "An accident has occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. One of the atomic reactors has been damaged. Aid will be given to those affected and a committee of government inquiry has been set up." This message gave the false impression that any damage and radiation was localized.

The government committee formed to investigate the accident, led by Valeri Legasov, arrived at Chernobyl in the evening of 26 April. By that time two people were dead and 52 were in hospital. During the night of 26 April / 27 April—more than 24 hours after the explosion—the committee, faced with ample evidence of extremely high levels of radiation and a number of cases of radiation exposure, had to acknowledge the destruction of the reactor and order the evacuation of the nearby city of Pripyat.

The evacuation began at 14:00, 27 April. To reduce baggage, the residents were told the evacuation would be temporary, lasting approximately three days. As a result, Pripyat still contains personal belongings. An exclusion zone of 30 km/19 mi remains in place today.

After the disaster, four square kilometres of pine forest in the immediate vicinity of the reactor turned ginger brown and died, earning the name of the "Red Forest". Some animals in the worst-hit areas also died or stopped reproducing. Most domestic animals were evacuated from the exclusion zone, but horses left on an island in the Pripyat River 6 km (4 mi) from the power plant died when their thyroid glands were destroyed by radiation doses of 150–200 Sv. Some cattle on the same island died and those that survived were stunted because of thyroid damage. The next generation appeared to be "normal".





















A natural concern is whether it is safe to visit Prypiat and the surrounding area. The Exclusion Zone is considered relatively safe to visit, and several Ukrainian companies offer guided tours of the area. The radiation levels have decreased from the high levels of April 1986 due to the decay of the short-lived isotopes released in the accident.

The city and the Exclusion Zone are now bordered with guards and police, but obtaining the necessary documents to enter the zone is not considered particularly difficult. A guide will accompany visitors to ensure nothing is vandalized or taken from the zone. The doors of most of the buildings are open to reduce the risk to visitors, and almost all of them can be visited when accompanied by a guide. The city of Chernobyl, located a few miles from Prypiat, has some accommodations including a hotel, many apartment buildings, and a local lodge, which are maintained as a permanent residence for watch-standing crew, and visitors




More on the evacuation :  Chernobyl-History


                                                                                                      



                                                                                                                      Source : Wikipedia
pripyat pripyat lpripyat lenin prospectpripyat theatrepripyat palace of culture
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pripyat swimming pool Azurepripyat swimming pool Azurepripyat swimming pool Azurepripyat swimming pool Azurepripyat
pripyat ferris wheel
Pripyat Ghost city (Part 1 of 3)

  
Blood FallsBlood FallsBlood FallsBlood Falls
Blood FallsBlood FallsBlood FallsBlood Falls
Blood FallsBlood FallsThis undated handout photo provided by the journal Science shows Iron oxides stain the snout of the Taylor Glacier, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, forming a feature commonly referred to as Blood Falls. The iron originates from ancient subglacial brine that episodically discharges to the surface. O
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Blood Falls - East Antartica

Blood Falls is an outflow of an iron oxide-tainted plume of saltwater, occurring at the tongue of the Taylor Glacier onto the ice-covered surface of West Lake Bonney in the Taylor Valley of the McMurdo Dry Valleys in Victoria Land, East Antarctica.

Iron-rich hypersaline water sporadically emerges from small fissures in the ice cascades. The saltwater source is a subglacial pool of unknown size overlain by about 400 meters of ice at several kilometers from its tiny outlet at Blood Falls.

The reddish deposit was found in 1911 by the Australian geologist Griffith Taylor, who first explored the valley that bears his name. The Antarctica pioneers first attributed the red color to red algae, but later it was proven to be due only to iron oxides.

Poorly soluble hydrous ferric oxides are deposited at the surface of ice after the ferrous ions present in the unfrozen saltwater are oxidized in contact with atmospheric oxygen. The more soluble ferrous ions initially are dissolved in old seawater trapped in an ancient pocket remaining from the Antarctic Ocean when a fjord was isolated by the glacier in its progression during the Miocene period, some 5 million years ago when the sea level was higher than today.

Unlike most Antarctic glaciers, the Taylor glacier is not frozen to the bedrock, probably, because of the presence of salts concentrated by the crystallization of the ancient seawater imprisoned below it. Salt cryo-concentration occurred in the deep relict seawater when pure ice crystallized and expelled its dissolved salts as it cooled down because of the heat exchange of the captive liquid seawater with the enormous ice mass of the glacier. As a consequence, the trapped seawater was concentrated in brines with a salinity two to three times that of the mean ocean water. A second mechanism sometimes also explaining the formation of hypersaline brines is the water evaporation of surface lakes directly exposed to the very dry polar atmosphere in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. The analyses of stable isotopes of water allow, in principle, to distinguish between both processes as long as there is no mixing between differently formed brines.

Hypersaline fluid, sampled fortuitously through a crack in the ice, was oxygen-free and rich in sulfate and ferrous ion. Sulfate is a remnant geochemical signature of marine conditions while soluble divalent iron likely was liberated under reducing conditions from the subglacial bedrock minerals weathered by microbial activity.














Chemical and microbial analyses both indicate that a rare subglacial ecosystem of autotrophic bacteria developed that metabolizes sulfate and ferric ions. According to geomicrobiologist Jill Mikucki at Dartmouth College, water samples from Blood Falls contained at least 17 different types of microbes, and almost no oxygen. An explanation may be that the microbes use sulfate as a catalyst to respire with ferric ions and metabolize the microscopic amounts of organic matter trapped with them. Such a metabolic process had never before been observed in nature.

A puzzling observation is the coexistence of Fe2+ and SO42– ions under anoxic conditions. Indeed, no sulfide anions (HS–) are found in the system. This suggests an intricate and poorly-understood interaction between the sulfur and the iron biochemical cycles.




More on the Blood Falls :  Discovery.com


                                                                                                      



                                                                                                                      Source : Wikipedia
A schematic cross-section of Blood Falls showing how subglacial microbial communities have survived in cold, darkness, and absence of oxygen for a million years in brine water below Taylor Glacier. Credit: US National Science Foundation (NSF)Blood Falls Macro
AP Photo/ Science, Benjamin Urmston

  
Ice palace or Ice castle Ice palace or Ice castle Ice palace or Ice castle Ice palace or Ice castle
Ice palace or Ice castle Ice palace or Ice castle Ice palace or Ice castle Ice palace or Ice castle
Ice palace or Ice castle Ice palace or Ice castle Ice palace or Ice castle Ice palace or Ice castle
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Ice palace or Ice castle - St. Petersburg - Russia

An ice palace or ice castle is a castle-like structure made of blocks of ice. These blocks are usually harvested from nearby rivers or lakes when they become frozen in winter. The first known ice palace (or, rather, ice house, ледяной дом in Russian) appeared in St. Petersburg, Russia and was the handiwork of Empress Anna.

In the cold winter of 1739–1740, Anna Ivanovna gave an order to build a palace made of ice in St. Petersburg. The palace and the surrounding festivities were part of the celebration of Russia's victory over Turkey. She ordered the architect Pyotr Yeropkin to design the building. It was built under the supervision of Georg Kraft, who left a detailed description of the palace.

The palace was 20 meters tall and 50 meters wide. Huge ice blocks were "glued" together with water. The garden was filled with ice trees with ice birds and an ice statue of an elephant. The outer walls were lined with ice sculptures. Before the palace there were artillery pieces also made of ice. The palace was also furnished with furniture made of ice, including an ice bed with ice mattress and pillows. The whole structure was surrounded with a tall wooden fence.

The festivities involving the Ice Palace included a mock wedding of two jesters.  Prince Mikhail Alekseyevich Galitzine had married an Italian woman. Empress Anna saw this as an affront because she was a Catholic, not Eastern Orthodox. The wife died soon after but Anna did not forgive Galitzine and decided to punish him in an unusual manner. She first ordered him to become a jester.

The Empress selected prince Galitzine a new wife, an unattractive kalmyk court lady jester Avdotya Ivanovna Buzheninova. She forced the prince to marry her and displayed the newlyweds in a procession where they rode an elephant and were followed by a number of cripples. In the palace the newlyweds were closed into an icy nuptial chamber under heavy guard. The couple survived the night because the bride traded a pearl necklace with one of the guards for a sheepskin coat.

Empress Anna died the following year and the castle did not survive the next summer. The Russian reading public was made aware of Anna's mock palace in 1835, when Ivan Lazhechnikov (1792-1869) described her escapade in The Ice House, one of the first historical novels in the language. The novel was made into a film as early as 1927.
























Many ice palaces have been built since. In North America, one was built in Montreal, Quebec, Canada in 1883.

The capital city of Minnesota, St. Paul, has played host to several ice palaces since 1886 as part the city's Winter Carnival. Some palaces have featured ice blocks numbering in the tens of thousands. A 1992 structure had 25,000 and stretched to a height of 150 feet (45.7 m). One built in 1941 had 30,000 ice blocks. St. Paul last built an ice palace in January 2004.

Every year since 1954 the Quebec City Winter Carnival in Quebec City has featured ice palaces or ice castles of various sizes, depending on the budget, and has often used them to imprison briefly those persons who were judged to be too glum in this time of good cheer.


Civil Works Administration: "The New Deal Ice Palace", Lake Bemidji, Minnesota--1934Saranac Lake, New York has an annual winter carnival in which an ice palace is built. This tradition dates back to the 19th century, when it was initiated to raise the spirits of tuberculosis patients who came to the town for recuperation over the long winter.

Saparmurat Niyazov, the recently deceased president of Turkmenistan, ordered the construction of a huge ice palace near the capital city of Aşgabat in April 2004, a remarkable project considering Turkmenistan's climate.

Although the appearance of the original ice palace is disputable, it is yearly rebuilt and open for public in Saint-Petersburg, Russia since 2005.










                                                                                                      



                                                                                                                      Source : Wikipedia
    Ice palace or ice castle detailIce palace or ice castle detailIce palace or ice castle detail
 Ice palace or ice castle detail Ice palace or ice castle detail Ice palace or ice castle detail
 Ice palace or ice castle detail Ice palace or ice castle building blocks
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